LATIN – apologeticus GREEK – apologetikos Apologetics: “The branch of theology that is concerned with defending or proving the truth of Christian doctrines” (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2009).
- MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT. Scott Gordon discusses the importance of listening before giving an apologetic response.
- FAIR FUNDRAISING. If you would like to help FAIR in its work to provide “well-documented answers to criticisms of LDS (Mormon) doctrine, belief and practice,” we encourage you to contribute through the FAIR web site.
- CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT. Claremont Graduate University has announced a March 2009 conference on LDS “perspectives on the attributes of God and the potential of man.”
- NEW ON THE WEBSITE: FAIR has assembled reviews of portions of Rodney Meldrum’s DVD entitled “DNA Evidence for Book of Mormon Geography.”
- NEW ON THE WEBSITE: The FAIR Web site now includes an updated searching capability.
- NEW ON THE WEBSITE: Brant Gardner’s 2008 FAIR Conference presentation on “Mormon’s Editorial Method and Meta-Message” is now available.
- NEW ON THE WEBSITE: Jeffrey Bradshaw’s 2008 FAIR Conference presentation entitled “The Message of the Joseph Smith Translation: A Walk in the Garden” is now available for downloading as a PDF file.
- NEW ON THE WEBSITE: S. Brent Scharman reviews Dean Byrd’s book “Mormons and Homosexuality.”
- RESOURCES ON THE WEB: Clark Globle blogs on Millennial Star about what makes good apologetics.
- ASK THE APOLOGIST. Got a question you are dying to ask? Here’s how.
- FAIR TOPICAL GUIDE. The Topical Guide on the FAIR Web site is one of the most popular resources offered. Learn what is available and help us expand our references.
- FAIR WIKI. The FAIR Wiki is an excellent resource for someone looking for a summary of an issue and for pointers to more detailed information. Links to many new and changed articles are included in this issue.
- FAIR YOUTUBE VIDEOS. FAIR has had a presence on youtube.com for several months and new video clips are added frequently.
- FAIR LDS BOOKSTORE. Visit the FAIR Bookstore at the FAIR Conference to build your apologetic library.
- ARTICLE SUBMISSIONS. Interested in writing for FAIR? Learn how you can have your apologetics work published.
- PUBLISHING NOTES. Learn how you can become more involved in FAIR and how you can reuse the material we publish.
- FAIR JOURNAL ARCHIVES. All of the FAIR Journal issues since October 2001 are on the FAIR web site.
MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT
When some members think of anti-Mormonism, immediately they have an image pop into their minds of the Evangelical preacher standing outside the convention center with the bullhorn screaming that Mormons are members of an evil cult. Typically the arguments that come to mind have to do with either the Bible (FAIR only had one question on it this year) or the tension-state between faith and works (also only one question this year). For most members, those issues have been discussed and debated over many generations of anti-Mormons, and members typically dismiss them with a waive of the hand. And if those were the only issues that people dealt with, we probably wouldn’t need an organization like FAIR.
We get well over 100 questions each month. We had 150 sent to us just in the month of August alone. Typically the questions we get are from people who had an idea of what the Church was supposed to be like, and then didn’t know how to handle it when their image didn’t match something else they were told. The real question for us becomes how to respond.
In our recent, very successful FAIR conference one of the recurring themes was to treat people with kindness and to understand their pain. For example, we recently received this email from a member who is leaving the Church along with her family:
“I have studied Journal of Discourses, church history and am sad to say that the church is hiding so much information. They lie by omission. Deliberately lie. If people knew the truth they would not join. The church teachings aren’t even the same as they were when I was growing up.”
This was, of course, followed by the member claiming to have found the Church-hidden facts from studying books published by the Church. My first reaction was a strong temptation to respond that the Church was very clever to hide all of those disturbing facts in Church books where no one would read them. But then I started to ask myself what would really help this woman and her family. What would comfort her?
Should we compare the accessibility of information in our Church with other churches? Ours is amazingly accessible. There isn’t much hidden for those who have the time and want to know. I have tried to get information from other church history libraries and find that while their historians are very nice, Mormons really are some of the best record keepers and they publish an incredible amount of historical information about the Church and its leaders.
Should we point out that other churches have as much or more dirty laundry than ours? Just think of American history: the massacres, the injustices, the denial of rights, the lack of moral values, the racism, even the witch trials, all put forward in a mostly Protestant America.
But I really don’t think any of these arguments will work. While these arguments might make us feel better, I doubt they would convince this member to stay in the Church and there is little to be gained by arguing that some things we have done may have been bad but some things others have done have been worse.
So, how should it be handled? What should we do? My answer is that I don’t know. That’s right, I am the president of the largest LDS apologetics organization, and I don’t really know how to help her.
So, I have to go back to what I do know. I have been taught that the best way to work through any problem is to first focus on what you do know.
I know that God loves us. He loves all of us, including those leaving the Church, those who have left the Church, and those who are attacking the Church.
I know that God wants the best for us.
I know that God put the Church here to help us, and to help us help others.
I know that the Church is filled with imperfect people who have extraordinary callings. These imperfect people rise to extraordinary heights and do amazing things. But, they also sometimes stumble and fall, even when acting within their calling.
So thinking of those things, the right answer is to try to listen. Before we start listing possible apologetics, we should try to discern what the person really wants and needs. Will this stop the woman from leaving the Church? Probably not. But, it may help her maintain a relationship with members of the Church. And it may help her maintain a relationship with God.
I received an email from an active member married to a man who has left the Church. She has remained married to him and tried to keep her family together. Unfortunately, some of her worst experiences came from members who would try to grill her on affiliating with individuals whose teachings are contrary to the Church. Some of the grilling was directly of her husband in front of her children. I have to ask myself how that less-active or non-member husband is now supposed to feel about the gospel. Would he feel it is a gospel of love?
I have read those allegedly “hidden” things that shock people out of the Church. Thinking of the miracle of the Church, those things don’t shock me. Given the various personalities in the Church, I think it is a miracle that we get right the things that we do. But I know those things shock others. And I have to remember that they are not me. They are upset. They are hurt, and the hurting is real. I have to remember that in all of my conversations.
I hope that we can help people strengthen their testimonies and feel the love through us that God has for all of his Children.
FAIR’s mission is to provide well-documented answers to criticisms of LDS doctrine, belief, and practice. Most of those criticisms come from outside the Church, but they sometimes come from within. Sometimes we hear from people who claim the Church has been lead astray. We believe we are dealing with such an issue today. We have several different theories on Book of Mormon geography that are floating around. Even within our FAIR membership we have more than one theory. One brother named Rodney Meldrum has been promoting one such theory. Rodney Meldrum’s activity came up on our radar screen not because he had a theory about Book of Mormon geography and not because he was claiming that other theories were wrong, but because of the accusation of not following Joseph Smith that was being lodged against faithful and sincere LDS scholars.
The review of Rodney Meldrum’s material was difficult for us because it deals with the ideas of a fellow active member of the Church. To try to be fair with him, we provided him with a rough draft of the reviews on July 12 and asked him to get back to us by September 1. He agreed to tell us if there was anything in our critique with which he agreed, and if so what he was going to do to prevent the spread of bad information. He also agreed to tell us what he did not agree with, and why. We have received nothing back on either of those points.
In response to the draft of our reviews, the only feedback we have received is that he wishes we wouldn’t have this discussion. He has said that the DVD sales are now his sole source of income and we hope that fact does not influence his stance on these matters. To be fair, he has personally assured me that he has other financial options. With that in mind, I wish him and his family well.
On a different note, California is in the spotlight because of the Church asking the members to support the marriage amendment. With this, some members are wondering where they can get good accurate information on homosexuality and its causes. I recently completed reading the very short book “Mormonism and Homosexuality” by Dr. Dean Byrd. In this brief book, I find that Dr. Byrd does a very good job of exploring the history of the discussion of homosexuality and what the scientific studies show. For those with questions in this area, I recommend this book.
We have included a review of Dr. Byrd’s book by Dr. Brent Scharman, a former President of the Utah Psychological Association. He describes himself as a “typical psychologist,” not an activist on either side of the homosexual issue. His review seems to be a very fair and balanced look at the book.
We have a lot of new material on our Web site and in the FAIR Wiki, and I hope you enjoy this edition of the FAIR Journal.
–Scott Gordon President
FAIR is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization, so if you are in the United States, your donation is tax deductible. Without your donations, FAIR would cease to exist. Thank you for your support.
You can also contact FAIR via the U.S. Postal Service using the following address.
FAIR P.O. Box 491677 Redding, CA 96049-1677
CLAREMONT GRADUATE UNIVERSITY CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT
The following announcement has been sent to FAIR for distribution.
The Howard W. Hunter Chair of Mormon Studies in the School of Religion at Claremont Graduate University is pleased to sponsor a conference on “Parallels and Convergences: Mormon Thought and Engineering Vision.”
The Howard W Hunter Chair is interesting in expanding the discussion of Latter-day Saint (LDS) perspectives on the attributes of God and the potential of man through a variety of innovative directions. One of the directions to be explored is whether there is a possible resonance between Mormon and engineering thought. The assumption is that according to LDS understanding, God is the architect of the Creation and the engineer of our bodies and spirits. Man, on the other hand, is believed to be capable of growing to become like God. The theological question is: where does engineering fit in the convergence of these two realms?
This conference is being organized under the direction of Howard W. Hunter Chair Richard Bushman.
Location: Claremont Graduate University 150 E. 10th Street Claremont, CA 91711
Important Dates: Abstract deadline: 2008 December 1 (extended abstract) Conference: 2009 March 7 (Saturday)
Details and Call for Papers can be found on,
NEW ON THE WEBSITE: FAIR REVIEW OF MELDRUM DVD
For many months FAIR has been responding to queries about a recent DVD and a series of fireside presentations by Rodney Meldrum that present a theory about the setting for the Book of Mormon. Meldrum’s theory of Book of Mormon geography is that the Nephite text deals with a civilization that was located in an area near and around the Mississippi and Ohio rivers in the Midwest region of the United States.
Over the decades since the Book of Mormon was first published, there have been advanced dozens of theories about where the events of the Book of Mormon took place. Proposed locations have included North America, Mexico, Central America, South America, the entire western hemisphere, and even Malaysia and Ethiopia. FAIR has no official position about the location of Book of Mormon events and members of FAIR can be found who back a number of different geography models.
While FAIR has not adopted any particular model as being the correct one, FAIR does publish material that points out errors in evidence and arguments used to support theories about the Book of Mormon. The goal of such rebuttal is not to attack or promote a particular point of view, but rather to ensure that the arguments made in support of the Book of Mormon are honest, accurate, and valid. Inaccuracies will eventually be discovered, and failing to root out poor scholarship and unjustified conclusions will ultimately damage testimonies and lead overall to a reduced confidence in the Book of Mormon and the ability of Latter-day Saints to defend it.
Inaccuracies and errors can be particularly damaging if the initial argument is not presented merely as a matter of scholarship and study but is supported by and founded upon appeals to the spiritual realm. In such a case, the collapse of the theory is not merely a matter of reasonable scholarship being superceded by even better scholarship, rather it becomes a matter of scholarship attacking and defeating spirituality and the principle of revelation. The collapse of what should have been only a theory can end up causing the collapse of personal testimony.
In FAIR’s approach to the Meldrum DVD, reviews have been created for specific sections of the DVD presentation. In some cases a single review deals with more than one DVD section. Each review includes both an executive summary and a full-length article. The full-length introduction and reviews of five of the seventeen DVD sections comprises nearly 100 pages in the PDF format.
Read the review:
- Misguided Zeal and Defense of the Church (Executive Summary) (HTML) (PDF)
- Misguided Zeal and Defense of the Church (HTML) (PDF)
NEW ON THE WEBSITE: NEW SEARCH FEATURE ON FAIRLDS.ORG
As the volume of information has increased on the FAIR Web site, it has become increasingly important to be able to search efficiently for articles and references relating to certain topics and key words. To make searching more flexible and complete, the FAIR Web site now uses the Google search engine. Visitors to the FAIR Web site will notice the new search box in the upper right corner of most pages.
Mormon’s Editorial Method and Meta-Message
by Brant A. Gardner
In his presentation at the 2008 FAIR Conference, Gardner looks closely at the way the ancient author Mormon organized, structured, and edited the text of what we now have as the Book of Mormon. Gardner points out that the book we have today is not the book that Mormon wanted us to have. With the loss of the first 116 pages and the addition of both the small plates and Moroni’s writings, the structure Mormon used is not obvious to the modern reader. Gardner points out the fascinating fact that the individual books within the Book of Mormon begin whenever the line of record-keepers is reconnected with the political leadership in Nephite society. Within this now-obvious structure, Mormon created a story designed not so much to teach doctrine as to convince readers that the Jesus who was born at Jerusalem and who later visited the Nephites was the promised Messiah and God of Israel.
Read the article:
Mormon’s Editorial Method and Meta-Message by Brant Gardner
The Message of the Joseph Smith Translation: A Walk in the Garden
by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw
The Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible has long been a important source of doctrine and scriptual interpretations for Latter-day Saints, particularly those parts of the JST that are found in the book of Moses in The Pearl of Great Price. In his presentation at the 2008 FAIR Conference, Bradshaw gives some basic information and statistics on how the JST came to be written, but most of the presentation focuses on the themes in the book of Moses relating to the Tree of Life, the Garden of Eden, and the temple.
Bradshaw explains how the images and symbols from the Garden of Eden were reflected in ancient Jewish temple architecture and ritual. These themes are found in other religious traditions from antiquity and in extra-biblical writings. Latter-day Saints will recognize many of these themes in the temple ceremonies of this dispensation. The presentation allows readers to better appreciate the symbolism of the temple and the goal of “the faithful [to return] back into the presence of the Father, where the original Edenic Tree of Life, bearing the sweet fruit of eternal life and the fulness of the love of God, is found.”
Read the PDF article:
The Message of the Joseph Smith Translation: A Walk in the Garden (PDF) by Jeffrey Bradshaw
(NOTE: This is a 1.5 MB PDF file of 52 pages contains many color graphic images.)
Mormons and Homosexuality: A Book Review
by S. Brent Scharman
Dean Byrd’s “Mormons and Homosexuality” was published just this year and is likely to generate substantial controversy. Byrd presented material on this topic in the 2004 FAIR Conference, and that paper resulted in a flurry of emails and message board posts.
S. Brenth Scharman reviews “Mormons and Homosexuality” as one familiar with the field and says the book “deserves a read and it shouldn’t be discounted just because some will view it as being written by the opposition.”
Read the review:
Mormons and Homosexuality: A Book Review by S. Brenth Scharman
RESOURCES ON THE WEB: FAIR WIKI TOPICAL GUIDE
The FAIR Wiki now has a Topical Guide. The Wiki Topical Guide is a superset of the FAIR Topical Guide. All entries in the FAIR Topical Guide should be accessible through the FAIR Wiki Topical Guide. The Guide is hierarchically structured: You may navigate down to subtopics and back up to parent topics using the hierarchical sub-page links at the top of each page. The top level of the Topical Guide may be accessed here:
FAIR Wiki Topical Guide entries will contain some or all of the following items:
- Links to subtopics within the Topical Guide
- Links to FAIR Wiki Articles
- Links to the corresponding entry in the FAIR Topical Guide
- Links to Maxwell Institute articles –
- Links to FAIR YouTube Videos
The FAIR Wiki Topical Guide may be accessed in a variety of ways:
- Type in “Topical Guide” in the FAIR Wiki search field.
- Follow the “Topical Guide” link in the “Contents” box near the top of the FAIR Wiki table of contents.
- Follow the “Topical Guide” link on any FAIR Wiki portal.
If you search for any subject in the wiki, relevant Topical Guide entries will appear in the search result list. The Guide is intended to be very dynamic and will be continuously updated with new topics as questions come in through the “Ask the Apologist” feature of the FAIR Web site and as new articles are added to the FAIR Wiki.
RESOURCES ON THE WEB: WHAT ARE GOOD APOLOGETICS?
Clark Goble recently blogged about how should be done. Goble identifies six basic areas where an apologist needs to focus: plausibility, hermeneutics not proof-texts, education not debate, burden of proof (particularly whether non-naturalistic claims can be allowed), ignoring evidence and arguments, and building common ground. He also correctly points out that “your audience is rarely the critic you are engaging but rather others looking on.” And Goble hit the mark when he described the goal of most apologetics. “The attempt is to persuade, often believers with doubts, that one can rationally believe.”
Read the article:
What are Good Apologetics? by Clark Goble
ASK THE APOLOGIST
FAIR invites the public to submit questions relating to LDS beliefs, practices, and history. Some questions are asked sincerely by members and investigators, others are clearly hostile questions challenging the veracity of the Church and its teachings. Many of these responses may end up on the Web site as a FAIR paper or brochure. If you have a question, you may submit it through the FAIR web site.
Questions sent to FAIR will be shared with members of FAIR, so it is not uncommon to receive several responses that approach the issue from different angles.
FAIR TOPICAL GUIDE
The Topical Guide is one of the most important LDS apologetic resources available. If you aren’t familiar with this part of FAIR’s Web site, check it out at
The FAIR wiki project was started in 2006 to provide a more flexible and searchable resource for Latter-day Saints and allow others to get answers to Gospel questions. The wiki is, by design, always a “work in progress,” with many editors at FAIR contributing to articles on a daily basis. You can access the FAIR wiki at:
This month the FAIR wiki focuses attention on wiki articles that have been updated. Each month hundreds of changes are made in the wiki as new information is incorporated, errors are found and corrected, and new topics are added. The following are only a few of the many wiki entries that have been modified this month.
The topical guide feature of the FAIR Wiki lets a reader find wiki pages by looking in an alphabetized list of topics. This topical guide (which should not be confused with the Topical Guide section of the FAIR Web site) includes an entry for “Multimedia presentations.” This has now been updated to include pointers to FAIR videos on YouTube.
A question frequently asked concerns the age of the Earth. Many Latter-day Saints, as with some other Christians, view the statements and geneaologies in the scriptures as being divinely sanctioned, literal chronologies of the Earth’s history. Others view these statements as being intended to make theological or spiritual points and should be interpreted figuratively or symbolically. The best answer to questions about the date of Adam or the age of the earth is simply that we have no revealed knowledge on the topic and that having or not having such information is not crucial for our salvation.
An old anti-Mormon criticism of the Book of Mormon is that two instances of the name “Benjamin” in the 1830 edition of the Book of Mormon were changed to “Mosiah.” The argument is that these changes prove that the Book of Mormon cannot be divinely created, transmitted, and translated. What the critics fail to consider, however, is that Latter-day Saints make no claim that ancient prophets, Joseph Smith, or modern day printers produce inerrant text. The Book of Mormon text, in fact, acknowledges that there may indeed be errors. When Joseph Smith first corrected the text for the 1837 printing, he may have been correcting an error of his or an error in the ancient text.
Another possibility is that Mormon and Joseph Smith both transmitted the information correclty as they received it, and that the “error” existed precisely because the story of Ammon and King Limhi shows that Ammon would have been reporting the kings as he had last known them prior to his leaving Zarahemla to look for the people of Limhi.
A standard attack against The Church of Jesus Christ involves charges of racism in the Book of Mormon. This FAIR Wiki article discusses many of the aspects of this criticism and explains how they are all based on misinterpretations of the text.
FAIR YOUTUBE VIDEOS
FAIR has created a site on YouTube that will provide videos on scholarly material, rebuttals to criticisms, evidences of the Church, past FAIR conferences, and much more.
Recently, there was an anti-Mormon cartoon on Youtube that has received over 1.2 million views and was ranked #1 for general searches for Mormonism. How is it that a poorly done, inaccurate video gets so much attention and get ranked #1, while good LDS videos get pushed to the side? Well, it is because the bad video got views and comments. That is what makes a video popular on Youtube and gives it a high ranking.
It is common for Latter-day Saints to want to comment on a video that is critical of LDS beliefs. But doing this is actually worse than doing nothing at all. Leaving a comment shows Youtube that people are interested in the video, and the video is then promoted.
To avoid promoting the critical videos of the Church, refrain from commenting on them or even viewing them. On the other hand, to promote faith-affirming videos, please view and comment on them. This months featured videos include the following.
The Bible vs The Book of Mormon: A Closer Examination
This is the full release of the rebuttal to the anti-Mormon video “The Bible vs. The Book of Mormon.” Portions of this video were previously put on YouTube in shortened, edited videos, but the entire rebuttal is now available and the individual videos are the entire segment related to the topic.
To see the entire YouTube playlist of video segments:
Listed below are some of the expanded video clips.
- Coins and The Book of Mormon
- Metals and The Book of Mormon
- Grains and The Book of Mormon
- Horses, Elephants and chariots in The Book of Mormon
- Book of Mormon geography (Old World)
- Book of Mormon geography (New World)
- Origins of the Native Americans
- Book of Mormon and Temples
- Hebrew poetry in The Book of Mormon
- Reformed Egyptian
- Archaeology and the Bible
- Scholars’ response to Bible vs The Book of Mormon
- Testimonies of the scholars
- Silk, Book of Mormon archaeology and the credits
Another video being highlighted this month is one of Matthew Roper discussing the issue of “others” (non-Lehites) in the Book of Mormon. He shows that the Americas were previously inhabited by populations prior to the arrival of Lehi and his party and how hints of these other peoples are mentioned in the Book of Mormon.
FAIR has also created a Youtube channel for viewers who would benefit from added captions. We have added transcription to many of our videos so that a wider audience of LDS will be able to have access to this information as well.
The FAIR collection of captioned videos
There is a very interesting video that shows the expansion of temples into many countries around the world. The video includes commentary by the late President Gordon B. Hinckley and James E. Faust. Temples literally “dot the earth.”
FAIR LDS BOOKSTORE
Come to the FAIR Bookstore to find the Internet’s best selection of materials for LDS apologetics. Whether you are looking for books, study aids, videos, or audio products, the FAIR Bookstore has what you need. You can begin your browsing by going to our main site.
Here is this month’s special:
New to the Bookstore!
“Setting the Record Straight: Mormons and Homosexuality” A. Dean Byrd (Millennial Press, 2008, paperback, 112 pgs., ISBN: 9781932597448)
In this book, practicing LDS psychologist Dr. Dean Byrd illuminates some of the little-known realities regarding homosexuality. He relies on his expertise as a social scientist and a practicing mental health professional as he shares the research and clinical data on this controversial topic. He provides compelling evidence on what science can and cannot say about homosexuality. Employing a thorough, scientific, and engaging style, this volume provides readers with the best LDS analysis of the issue of homosexuality available. Available for only $7.96! Retail is $9.95
See a great review of this book by S. Brent Scharman: http://www.fairlds.org/Reviews/Rvw200801.html
Thank you for using the FAIR bookstore!
–FAIR Bookstore Staff
We welcome article submissions for the FAIR Web site. If you would like to submit an article, please review the editing guidelines at:
Submit your article to the FAIR Journal Editor. An appropriate article would be one that affirms the truthfulness of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
While LDS apologetics (in the broadest sense) deals with refuting critics of the Church, articles don’t necessarily have to deal with anti-Mormonism, but may deal with some new evidence of the Book of Mormon, some interesting scripture interpretation, a viewpoint or quote from the early Christian Fathers or other historical figure, an interesting lesson idea, an inspiring missionary story, Church history, or your view on a current event related to the Church or a piece from a historical journal.
We may also accept articles from people who are not members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints that may not necessarily meet the guidelines of supporting the church if it is a topic of general interest to people involved in apologetics.
A submission may range in length from several pages to a single paragraph.
FAIR is not owned, controlled by or affiliated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. All research and opinions provided in the FAIR Journal and on the FAIR Web site (http://www.fairlds.org) are the sole responsibility of FAIR, and should not be interpreted as official statements of LDS doctrine, belief or practice.
If someone has forwarded this e-journal to you and you would like to join you should go to www.fairlds.org and click on the FAIR Publications link.
If you are very interested in apologetics and would like to actively participate in FAIR you should consider joining our apologetics e-mail list. Visit www.fairlds.org and click on the Join FAIR link to join this list.
If you manage your own e-mail list, and wish to include some of these thoughts or articles on your list, contact us through our Web site, at this page: www.fairlds.org/contact.psp. We have a fairly liberal policy of using our material so long as you contact us first to gain permission and clearly identify that your source was FAIR and by adding a link to the FAIR Web site (www.fairlds.org).
If you would like to sign up to receive the FAIR Journal automatically, click here.
To return to the index of past FAIR Journal issues, click here.