Criticism of Mormonism/Video/Search for the Truth DVD/Reader Comments

Reaction from FAIR's Readers

The following is a sampling of the email messages FAIR has received since posting the response to the Jesus Christ/Joseph Smith DVD. Names and email addresses have been removed for privacy reasons.

While we have not posted every message we've received, the following is representative of the types of messages FAIR is getting. We've included both supportive and critical messages here. Our editorial replies appear in blue.

If you would like to contact FAIR about the DVD response, please use our contact web page.

From: DM
Received: Saturday, 24 March 2007

I visited my daughter today and she had a whole scheaf of papers in her hands. "Have you read this, Dad? It's FAIR's rebuttal to the DVD on YouTube. It is really really good!" She was impressed. She had found it on her own. You guys are great.

From: JR
Received: Saturday, 24 March 2007

I have not viewed the anti-Mormon dvd, not will I waste my time with it. I have already read many books, both pro and con. However, after being an active member of the church for over 20 years, inactive for the last 5 or so, I can understand the sentiments. The church rarely mentioned Jesus Christ in most talks and Sunday school lessons when I attended. It was always about Joseph Smith and his importance. Oh, did I miss the stories and teachings of Jesus! Of course the church has since changed it's views, but a bit late for me.

Latter-day Saints do spend a lot of time focusing on the mission of Joseph Smith because he is the prophet who was called to restore the gospel in the last days. This can feel unusual or unfamiliar to converts from Protestant or evangelical Christianity. But although Latter-day Saints discuss Joseph Smith, we also "talk of Christ, we rejoice in Christ, we preach of Christ, we prophesy of Christ" (2 Nephi 25꞉26). Jesus Christ is the center of our devotion and worship. All prayers are given in his name, and all talks are closed with his name. The sacrament is administered in every regular Sunday meeting, memorializing Jesus' atonement and renewing the covenants Latter-day Saints have made with him. As important as Joseph Smith is to the Saints, he does not compare in any way to the Lord Jesus Christ.

If we do not follow Joseph Smith's "revelations" we will not be able to gain access to the highest level of Heaven and meet God personally. After many months of prayer and study I've come to realize that God would not admit us to the highest level of heaven only if we play a little game and pretend to meet him first and give him a secret handshake. Also, if God truly wants us to make it back to Heaven, he would not have left the instructions with only one human being, especially one with so many "imperfections", for all of humanity to follow. (In 1st or 2nd Corinthians it is mentioned the answer will be always be given to more than one).

The point is not about following Joseph Smith, but about following the ordained prophets of God whatever age in which they have been called. Joseph Smith is not alone in his witness—many prophets came before him, and many have come after. All of them were human beings with imperfections, but they delivered God's message to the best of their capacity. JR's caricature of LDS temple ordinances also dramatically oversimplifies and distorts the importance of the temple covenant and ritual.

When I have asked questions in the past of bishops, or visiting and home teachers, I have been told I'm not to question anything. I have read the ten rules for following a prophet blindly, no matter how wrong I feel he might be. Am I to abandon my Holy Spirit when I do this? Or my Free Will? Or my Intelligence?) And where are some of these righteous people today? One recent visiting teacher is now in jail in Las Vegas for prostitution. One of my home teachers is in jail for child pornography, another in jail for murdering his wife. These are the ones that told me that my answers were not of God since they were different from theirs. While I am not judging the church based on these people, it does give me an indication that perhaps my prayers are correct.

Latter-day Saints are mortal, fallible, and imperfect. Some of them commit very serious sins. Unfortunately, JR seems to have met more than her share of them.
There is nothing in LDS teaching that requires believers "not to question anything," nor to "follow a prophet blindly." In fact, numerous scriptures in the Doctrine and Covenants speak of using our God-given intelligence to study and learn, and to use that knowledge, coupled with inspiration from the Holy Ghost, to come to a knowledge of truth. (See D&C 88꞉79; D&C 88꞉118; D&C 90꞉15; D&C 130꞉19.)

It is interesting how questions seem to be answered with questions in your responses to the dvd. It is also interesting you quote Bruce McKonkie [sic] when it suits your argument, but slap his hand when he deviates from the teachings of the church. In the many years I was involved in the church I found that to be the case with the Book of Mormon as well. Very few Mormons have read the book cover to cover. Only a tiny bit is used to support lesson plans for Sunday school. It was frustrating to ask questions raised by reading the Book of Mormon, to be told "I don't need to read it - I prayed about it!" Many people told me this.

Elder Bruce R. McConkie wrote and spoke widely, and many of the things he wrote and said are correct. Some of the things he wrote and said were his own opinion, or ventured into areas where there is no definitive revelation on the subject, or where faithful Latter-day Saints disagree. As stated previously, we do not believe prophets are infallible, but they do have a special commission and it is in our best interest to consider what they say carefully.
It is difficult to respond to JR's claim that the Book of Mormon wasn't read or used much by Latter-day Saints she knew. Certainly leaders of the Church—especially over the last 20 years—have repeatedly asked the Saints to read the Book of Mormon. According to BYU's General Conference Scripture Citation Index, speakers in General Conference from 1986 to 2006 quoted from the Book of Mormon 5,727 times, compared to 5,109 from the New Testament and 4,291 from the Doctrine and Covenants. We spend one year out of ever four in our Sunday School lesson cycle studying the Book of Mormon. In August 2005, President Hinckley challenged all Latter-day Saints to read the Book of Mormon cover to cover before the end of the year. So JR's criticism seems to be without merit. (In fact, one of the frequent criticisms we respond to at FAIR is that Latter-day Saints put too much focus on the Book of Mormon!)

Another point of contention I have with the church not working for me personally is the teaching that no matter how righteous a life I lead, it is solely up to the discretion of my husband to "call me over to the other side." This is why he is allowed to know my new temple name but I am given his. How can a loving God leave my fate up to another human being? Does a woman have no choices in the church?

Since this involves temple ordinances, we are limited in what we can say in this case. Certainly, though, Latter-day Saints believe that the wife of an unrighteous or unbelieving husband would not be hindered by him in any way in receiving her exaltation.

I don't mean to denigrate Mormonism - it works for many people. But please consider there may be other avenues to the highest level of heaven. If Mormonism were more tolerant of other religions, then perhaps other religions would follow suit. It's called the Law of Attraction.

Latter-day Saints believe there is much truth and much good in all religious beliefs, and that all truths should be believed, regardless of their source. Our loving Heavenly Father will give everyone the appropriate opportunity in God's own time to accept the grace of his Son through the proper ordinances and covenants.
And JR is correct that Mormons do need to be more tolerant of others' beliefs. President Hinckley has said precisely that on several occasions recently.

From: CP
Received: Sunday, March 25, 2007

They [the DVD's producers] make the assertion that the number of Mormons in Utah is steadily decreasing. I find that hard to believe. Perhaps the number of Mormons as a percent of total population is probably true. Do you have any stats related to that?

We sure do, CP:

From: JM
Received: Sunday, 25 March 2007

Thank you for your perspective on the Jesus Christ/Joseph Smith DVD. You might be interested in an evangelical critique of this same project that has been viewed positively by many LDS, and not so positively by many in the counter-cult and those associated with this project. It might be of value to you and your readers and it can be found here:

From: JD
Received: Sunday, 25 March 2007

As a convert, born and raised as a Catholic, I understand some of the frustrations non-LDS people have. When people question our faith in Jesus Christ, they in actuality are questioning their faith. I have often wondered why do they act that way, then I hear in my head the Lord is saying "Forgive them Father for they know not what they do." It is so easy to find fault in the other guy.

People are afraid of what they do not know or wish to know. Without the comfort of the Holy Ghost some sheep will be lost forever.

I'm retired and loving all of the scriptures is a passion, if there is anything I can do to help, please don't hesitate to write. God Bless.

From: MR
Received: Sunday, 25 March 2007

I disagree with the statement [on the "Who Is Jesus?" page]: "Satan's plan, and his offer to implement it, was never consistent with God the Father's plan of salvation." The inference is that Satan had a distinct plan that contrasted with and was offered to us along with the Father's plan. The Father was the only one to offer a plan. Satan and Jesus each offered to implement the plan in his own way. I think you should get rid of the "Satan's plan" and make it "Satan's offer." Maybe this is a minor point, but I keep hearing people say from the pulpit that two plans were presented, God's and Satan's, as if we all democratically "voted" on which plan to accept. This notion makes Satan appear at the same level as God the Father.

FAIR volunteers discussed this wording quite a bit before we settled on the final version. Ultimately we felt that this really came down to semantics, and that most Latter-day Saints would be familiar with the phrase "Satan's plan." Technically, though, MR is correct: The Father described Jesus as "my Beloved and Chosen from the beginning" (Moses 4꞉2). It was the Father's intent from the start to offer Jesus as a redemptive sacrifice for all mankind; Satan's offer was not a choice between two equal plans.

From: TG
Received: Monday, 26 March 2007

As a bishop in [edited for privacy], I appreciate the work you folks do. But it seems you sometimes over reach and you lose some credibility. The stuff [on the "Archaeology" page] about the swords being made from wood and stone is a definite example. Certainly there may have been some of those, but come on - wood and stone don't rust! The Book of Mormon speaks plainly about the Nephites finding hilts of Jaredite swords that the blades had rusted. Ether 7:9 says their swords were made of steel. Nephi used the sword of Laban (which was made of steel) as a pattern to make his people swords. And on the matter of geography and archeology, as a faithful latter-day Saint I don't have a problem with admitting the fact that we really don't know where these events took place. I get a little put off when you tell me that it all fits neatly into Meso-America and that the Hill Cumorah in NY isn't the real Hill Cumorah of the Book of Mormon. I believe it is, and so did Joseph and all the early Church leaders. The fact is, we just don't know. And we just need to state that plainly without letting big egos get in the way.

It is true that swords not made of metal do not rust, but they can corrode and decay. The ancient writers of the Book of Mormon may not have seen a difference between corrosion, decay, and rust. We also have to be careful to differentiate between (earlier) Jaredite and (later) Lehite societies and the weapons they might have used.
With regard to the location of the Hill Cumorah, there is certainly room for disagreement among Latter-day Saints on this issue. Our experience has been that most Latter-day Saints who have an informed opinion on the subject have accepted the Mesoamerican region as the location of the Book of Mormon, and our DVD response reflected that (perceived) majority opinion. However, we're including TG's comments here to demonstrate that there are other valid points of view.

From: PC
Received: Sunday, 25 March 2007

What a wonderful website. You illustrate clearly how fear motivates in so called Christains, pathetic attempts to stop the Lords' work from progressing. May Heavenly Father bless you as you gently point out the lies and deception of those who work for the adversary. So many of these evangelicals seem to fear us so much, interesting isn't it! Who is the author of fear? Certainly not Christ. Keep up all this great work.

From: MD
Received: Monday, 26 March 2007

I was made aware of your organization by way of an email announcing some new anti-Mormon DVD. Although I am a bit uncomfortable with the purpose of your group, my real objection is in your choice to use "apologetic". Did you consider the definition most people would apply to it? I personally wouldn't ally myself with an organization that sounds like they are making excuses for doctrine and principles. I checked out your web site primarily to see if you were really anti-Mormon. Are you? Please consider finding a better word or entire name.

FAIR consists of believing Latter-day Saints who are committed to defending The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the restored gospel against false or unfair attacks. We are very definitely "pro-Mormon."
The word "apologetic" in our name comes from the Greek word απολογια (apologia), meaning "a defense." The word appears eight times in the New Testament (Acts 22:1; Acts 25:16; 1 Corinthians 9:3; 2 Corinthians 7:11; Philippians 1:7; Philippians 1:17; 2 Timothy 4:16; 1 Peter 3:15). Apologetics is the branch of theology concerned with the defense of Christianity.

From: BS
Received: Monday, 26 March 2007

Thank you for taking the time to produce such a well-reasoned and well-documented response to that vicious DVD. I do wish you had a better editor. For example, I wish you understood the difference between "principal" and "principle."

Our response to the DVD was put together on short notice using collaborative wiki software. Because of that, we fully expect there to be typos and other grammatical errors. If you find any, please bring them to our attention by using our contact web page.
(After we received this email, we searched for instances where "principle" should have been spelled "principal"; there were two of them, and we fixed both.)

From: SK
Received: Monday, 26 March 2007

On the Search for Truth page, Annotated Letter of Instruction, under "CAUTION...Mormons will blindly obey" - how about put a footnote to this link:

BTW-You did a great job on this page! Thanks for all the effort and time. It was motivating and uplifting for me.

Done! Thanks for the suggestion, SK.

From: WW
Received: Monday, 26 March 2007

Thank you for the rapid and thorough treatment of the latest slanderous offering by those who love us as only "Christians" can. I was impressed by the sound reasoning, cross referencing and ample research done by the author of this treatise.

Other than the more recent claims about DNA, there really isn't anything in the video that one couldn't have read in any anti-Mormon tract written before 1970. However, it seems that the idea dies hard, that if you just re-package something every now and then and put it out to a new audience, there may be some ground to be gained.

I especially thought the letter to distributors was humorous. In one place, the producers of the video claim to be making great progress in combating Mormonism in Utah, yet they fear that if leaders of the church get wind of the project, the same "vulnerable" leaders will run out and preempt their efforts. One aspect of Anti-Mormons which I have always found interesting is that they just can't seem to make up their minds as to whether the church is vulnerable, or powerful. Whether Joseph Smith was a common con-man and womanizer, or evil genius.

Thank you for your efforts. I appreciate your presence and contributions.

From: TP
Received: Tuesday, 27 March 2007

I have not seen this particular video, but I have seen another series called "What's the Difference?". You can download it at

These are produced and released without secrecy.

One can express differences in the two faiths with love and still disagree.

I think these types of films all stem from the fact that Joseph Smith claimed to have seen a vision which said all Christian creeds were an abomination to God. It was Latter-day Saints who then started going door to door to tell other Christians that they were members of apostate churches and they needed to believe in a restored gospel. Other non-LDS ministries are doing whatever they can to prevent their sheep from being taken away.

TP places the message of the restored gospel in the most negative light possible. Rather than "tell[ing] other Christians that they [are] members of apostate churches," Latter-day Saints see the Restoration as an opportunity to tell others to keep all the truths they now believe, and we will add to them those additional truths God has revealed in the last days. As the Church's press release on the video puts it:
When Latter-day Saint missionaries visit homes or engage others in conversation, they studiously avoid criticism of other faiths. They do not attack and they do not condemn. Instead, they declare their own message honestly and openly and allow people the freedom to choose. Above all, they encourage each person to find out for themselves through personal research as well as prayer.
If the purpose of this video is to prevent non-Latter-day Saints "from being taken away" from their existing Churches, then why is the video being distributed primarily to Latter-day Saint homes? And, regardless of its audience, why does it have to distort the actual beliefs of Latter-day Saints?

Maybe The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints should boldly proclaim to the world that she is not just another Christian denomination, that she does not believe in the same Jesus Christ, and release a comparative video and boldly stick to the claims of its prophet and founder Joseph Smith, without worrying about who she will offend.

For the most part, The Church of Jesus Christ does do this. It does not claim to be "just another Christian denomination," but to be restored Christianity. President Gordon B. Hinckley has recently said on several occasions that we do not believe in the Jesus of the creeds. And the Church has and continues to release films about the life and mission of Joseph Smith (including the recent Joseph Smith: The Prophet of the Restoration).

Maybe she could start by modifying its web site. It is about as vague as one can be in regards to what the goal of the Mormon is.

FAIR does not speak for the Church, but since the mission of the Church is to invite all to come unto Christ and be saved (Moroni 10꞉30-32; Jacob 1꞉7; Omni 1꞉26; D&C 20꞉59), we see the design of the Church's web site as completely appropriate.

For instance,,8672,1121-1,00.html. What is the purpose of life? "God wants all of His children to progress and become more like Him".

Notice how it doesn't tell the whole truth?

It needs to say that God wants all of His children to become a God like Him. Just like it says in the book "Gospel Principles".

Again FAIR doesn't speak for the Church, but since the clear purpose of is to introduce people to the beliefs of the Church, it seems entirely appropriate that that introduction begins with "God wants all of His children to...become more like Him." That statement is true, and lays the foundation for further study.
Since the entire text of the Church-published book Gospel Principles is easily available online for free, we can hardly see how the Church can be hiding "the whole truth." (Especially when critics of the Church point to it so often, and even pro-LDS sites link to it. Like we just did right here.)

It seems like the LDS Church is not willing to state its highest goal of achievement because it doesn't want to appear like Hinduism on the Internet.

Dan Peterson has responded to the rather remarkable claim that Mormonism is more like Hinduism than Christianity:
One would very much like to pose a few questions to [those who claim Mormonism is more like Hinduism than Christianity]: What, for example, is the role of the Vedas or of the Upanishads in Latter-day Saint devotions? How central is the concept of karma to Mormon theology? What have the leaders of the church had to say about reincarnation, or the transmigration of souls? Is there any passage in Mormon scripture that advocates a rigid and complex caste system? Has an atheistic form of Mormonism, analogous to the Hindu atheist movements, been a fruitful element in Latter-day Saint intellectual history? Which is closer to Hindu monistic teaching, the Mormon concept of the Godhead or classical post-Nicene trinitarianism? Can [they] name any Latter-day Saint hymn devoted to Vishnu? Would she care to comment on the rising bhakti movement among the followers of Joseph Smith? On the chanting of saffron-robed Mormon missionaries at American airports? (Hare Joseph!)
Daniel C. Peterson, "Skin Deep (Review of: Die Mormonen: Sekte oder neue Kirche Jesu Christi?)," FARMS Review of Books 9/2 (1997): 99–146. off-site
The LDS doctrine of exaltation has only a superficial resemblance to the Hindu belief. It has much more in common with the early Christian and modern Orthodox Christian belief in theosis—that man, through the atonement of Christ, can become like God.
Learn more about theosis or humans becoming like God
Key sources
  • Michael W. Fordham, "Does President Gordon B. Hinckley Understand LDS Doctrine?" FAIR link
FAIR links
  • Roger Cook, "'Christ, the Firstfruits of Theosis'," Proceedings of the 2002 FAIR Conference (August 2002). link
  • D. Charles Pyle, "'I Have Said, ‘Ye are Gods’'," Proceedings of the 1999 FAIR Conference (August 1999). link
  • Daniel C. Peterson and Stephen D. Ricks, "Comparing LDS Beliefs with First-Century Christianity" (Provo, Utah: FARMS, no date). off-site
  • Jeff Lindsay, "The Divine Potential of Human Beings: The Latter-day Saint Perspective," (accessed 30 March 2007)off-site
  • Jordan Vajda, "'Partakers of the Divine Nature': A Comparative Analysis of Patristic and Mormon Doctrines of Divinization," FARMS Occasional Papers, (2002).off-site
  • Keith Norman, "Deification: The Content of Athanasian Soteriology," FARMS Occasional Papers, (2000).off-site
  • Donald Q. Cannon, "The King Follett Discourse: Joseph Smith's Greatest Sermon in Historical Perspective," Brigham Young University Studies 18 no. 2 (1978), 179. PDF link
  • Van Hale, "The Doctrinal Impact of the King Follett Discourse," Brigham Young University Studies 18 no. 2 (1978), 209. PDF link
  • David Bokovoy, "'Ye Really Are Gods: A Response to Michael Heiser concerning the LDS Use of Psalm 82 and the Gospel of John; Review of You've Seen One Elohim, You've Seen Them All? A Critique of Mormonism's Use of Psalm 82, by Michael S. Heiser'," FARMS Review 19/1 (2007). [267–313] link
  • Daniel C. Peterson, "'Ye Are Gods': Psalm 82 and John 10 as Witnesses to the Divine Nature of Humankind," in The Disciple As Scholar: Essays on Scripture and the Ancient World in Honor of Richard Lloyd Anderson, edited by Richard Lloyd Anderson, Stephen D. Ricks, Donald W. Parry, and Andrew H. Hedges, (Provo, Utah: FARMS, 2000),471–594. direct off-site
  • Gerald N. Lund, "Is President Lorenzo Snow's oft-repeated statement 'As man now is, God once was; as God now is, man may be'] accepted as official doctrine by the Church?," Ensign (February 1982),
  • Donald Q. Cannon, Larry E. Dahl, and John W. Welch, "The Restoration of Major Doctrines through Joseph Smith: The Godhead, Mankind, and the Creation," Ensign 19 (January 1989), 27–33. off-site
  • Keith E. Norman, "Deification, Early Christian," in Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 4 vols., edited by Daniel H. Ludlow, (New York, Macmillan Publishing, 1992), 1:369–
  • Michael S. Heiser, "'Israel's Divine Counsel, Mormonism, and Evangelicalism: Clarifying the Issues and Directions for Future Study'," FARMS Review 19/1 (2007). [315–323] link
  • Michael S. Heiser, "'You've Seen One Elohim, You've Seen Them All? A Critique of Mormonism's Use of Psalm 82'," FARMS Review 19/1 (2007). [221–266] link
  • John C. Hancock, "A Compelling Case for Theosis," Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 30/3 (14 September 2018). [43–48] link
  • Stan Larson, "The King Follett Discourse: A Newly Amalgamated Text"," Brigham Young University Studies 18 no. 2 (1978), 193. PDF link
  • Daniel O. McClellan, "Psalm 82 in Contemporary Latter-day Saint Tradition," Interpreter: A Journal of Mormon Scripture 15/8 (8 May 2015). [79–96] link
  • Neal Rappleye, "'With the Tongue of Angels': Angelic Speech as a Form of Deification," Interpreter: A Journal of Mormon Scripture 21/11 (2 September 2016). [303–324] link
  • Blake T. Ostler, "Review of The Mormon Concept of God: A Philosophical Analysis by Francis J. Beckwith and Stephen E. Parrish," FARMS Review 8/2 (1996). [99–146] link
  • David L. Paulsen and R. Dennis Potter, "How Deep the Chasm? A Reply to Owen and Mosser's Review," FARMS Review 11/2 (2000). [221–264] link
  • Tom Rosson, "'Deification: Fulness and Remnant, A Review of Deification and Grace by Daniel A. Keating'," FARMS Review 20/1 (2008). [195–218] link
  • Keith Norman, "Divinization: The Forgotten Teaching of Early Christianity," Sunstone no. (Issue #1) (Winter 1975), 14–19. off-siteoff-site
  • Ernst W. Benz, "Imago Dei: Man in the Image of God," in Truman G. Madsen (editor), Reflections on Mormonism: Judaeo-Christian parallels : papers delivered at the Religious Studies Center symposium, Brigham Young University, March 10-11, 1978 (Provo, Utah: Religious Studies Center , Brigham Young University and Bookcraft, 1978), 215–216. ISBN 0884943585. Reprinted in Ernst Benz, "Imago dei: Man as the Image of God," FARMS Review 17/1 (2005): 223–254. off-site
    Note: Benz misunderstands some aspects of LDS doctrine, but his sketch of the relevance of theosis for Christianity in general, and Joseph Smith's implementation of it, is worthwhile.
Christ, The Firstfruits of Theosis: Early Christian Theosis, Roger Cook, 2002 FAIR Conference
  • Daniel H. Ludlow, "Eternal Life or Exaltation within the Celestial Kingdom," in Daniel H. Ludlow, Selected Writings of Daniel H. Ludlow: Gospel Scholars Series (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2000), 416-20.
  • David L. Paulsen, "Early Christian Belief in a Corporeal Deity: Origen and Augustine as Reluctant Witnesses," Harvard Theological Review 83 (1990): 108–109.
  • Extensive non-LDS bibliography available here.
  • K. Codell Carter, "Godhood," in Daniel H. Ludlow, ed., Encyclopedia of Mormonism (New York: Macmillan, 1992), 553-55.
  • Lorenzo Snow, "As God Is, Man May Be," in Lorenzo Snow, Teachings of Lorenzo Snow, compiled by Clyde J. Williams, (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1984), 2–9. ISBN 0884945170.
  • Robert L. Millet, "Do the Mormons really believe that men and women can become gods?" in Robert L. Millet, The Mormon Faith: Understanding Restored Christianity (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1998), 175-77, 192-94.
  • Robert L. Millet, "The Doctrine of Godhood in the New Testament," in The Principles of the Gospel in Practice (Sandy, UT: Randall Book, 1985), 21-37.
  • Thomas S. Monson, An Invitation to Exaltation (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1997), 18 pp.
Bibliography on human deification
  • Aden, Ross, “Justification and Divinization,” Dialog. A Journal of Theology (St. Paul, Minn.) 32 (1993): 102-7.
  • Aden, Ross, “Justification and Sanctification. A Conversation between Lutheranism and Orthodoxy,” St. Vladimir’s Theological Quarterly 38 (1994): 87-109.
  • Allchin, A.M., Participation in God. A Forgotten Strand in Anglican Tradition (Connecticut 1988).
  • Andia, Ysabel de, Homo vivens. Incorruptibilite et divinisation de l’homme selon Irenee de Lyon (Paris 1986).
  • Andia, Ysabel de, “Mysteres, unification et divinisation de l’homme selon Denys l’areopagite,” Orientalia Christiana Periodica (Rome) 63 (1997): 273-332.
  • Arroniz, J., “La immortalidad como deificacion en S. Ireneo,” Scriptorium Victoriense (Vitoria, Spain) 8 (1961): 262-87.
  • Asendorf, Ulrich, “The Embeddedment of Theosis in the Theology of Martin Luther,” in Luther Digest 3 (1996): 159-61; English abridgment from Luther und Theosis, ed. Simo Peura and Antti Raunio (Helsinki 1990).
  • Aubineau, M., “Incorruptibilite et divinisation selon saint Irenee,” Recherches de science religieuse 44 (1956): 25-52.
  • Bakken, Kenneth L., “Holy Spirit and Theosis. Toward a Lutheran Theology of Healing,” St. Vladimir’s Theological Quarterly 38 (1994): 409-423.
  • Balas, David L., Metousia Theou. Man’s participation in God’s Perfections according to Saint Gregory of Nyssa. Studia Anselmiana, volume 55 (Rome 1966).
  • Bardy, Gustave, “Divinisation: According to the Latin Fathers,” in Dictionnaire de Spiritualite, ascetique et mystique doctrine et histoire (Paris 1957): 3, Columns 1389-1398.
  • Baur, L., “Untersuchungen uber die Vergottlichungslehre in der Theologie der grieschischen Vater,” Theologische Quartalschrift 98 (1916): 467-91; 99 (1917): 225-252; 100 (1919): 426-444; 101 (1920): 28-64, 155-186.
  • Bielfeldt, Dennis, “Deification as a Motif in Luther’s Dictata super psalterium,” Sixteenth Century Journal 28 (1997): 401-420.
  • Bilaniuk, Petro B.T., “The Mystery of Theosis or Divinization,” in The Heritage of the Early Church. Essays in Honor of the Very Reverend Georges Vasilievich Florovsky, ed. David Nieman and Margaret Schatkin; Orientalia Christiana Analecta, volume 195 (Rome 1973): 337-359.
  • Blowers, Paul M., “Maximus the Confessor, Gregory of Nyssa, and the Concept of ‘Perpetual Progress,’” Vigiliae Christianae 46 (1992): 151-71.
  • Bonner, Gerald, “Augustine’s Conception of Deification,” Journal of Theological Studies 37 (1986): 369-85.
  • Bonner, Gerald, “Deification, Divinization,” in Augustine through the Ages: An Encyclopedia, ed. Allan D. Fitzgerald, O.S.A. (W.B. Eerdmans 1999): 265-6.
  • Bonner, Gerald, “’Deificare,’” in Augustinus-Lexikon 2 (1996): columns 265-7.
  • Bornhauser, K., Die Vergottungslehre des Athanasius und Johannes Damascenus (Gutersloh 1903).
  • Braaten, Carl E., ”The Finnish Breakthrough in Luther Research,” Pro Ecclesia 5 (1996): 141-3.
  • Bratsiotis, P., “Die Lehre der orthodoxen Kirche uber die Theosis des Menschen,” Mededelingen van de Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie voor Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schone Kunsten van Belgie. Klasse der Letteren XXIII/1 (Brussels 1961): 1-13.
  • Brecht, Martin, “Neue Ansatze der Lutherforshung in Finnland,” Luther (1990): 36-40.
  • Breck, John, “Divine Initiative. Salvation in Orthodox Theology,” in Salvation in Christ. A Lutheran-Orthodox Dialogue, ed. John Meyendorff and Robert Tobias (Minneapolis 1992): 105-120.
  • Butterworth, George W., ”The Deification of Man in Clement of Alexandria,” Journal of Theological Studies 17 (1916): 157-69.
  • Capanaga, Victorino, “La deificacion en la soteriologia agostiniana,” in Augustinus Magister 2 (Paris 1954): 745-754.
  • Carabine, Deirdre, “Five Wise Virgins. Theosis and Return in Periphyseon V,” in Iohannes Scottus Eriugena, ed. G. van Riel, J.C. Steel, and J. McEvoy (Leuven 1996): 195-207.
  • Cavanagh, William T., “A Joint Declaration?” Justification as theosis in Aquinas and Luther,” Heythrop Journal 41 (London 2000): 265-280.
  • Christensen, Michael J., “Theosis and Sanctification. John Wesley’s Reformulation of a Patristic Doctrine,” Wesleyan Theological Journal 31 (1996): 71-94.
  • Congar, Yves M.-J. (later Cardinal), Dialogue Between Christians. Catholic Contributions to Ecumenism (Newman Press 1966; 1st Paris 1964). Chapter 8 is entitled: “Deification in the Spiritual Tradition of the East’: 217-231; first published in La Vie Spirituelle 43 (1935): 91-107.
  • Congar, Yves M.-J., The Mystery of the Temple (Newman Press 1962; Paris 1958); Appendix III: “God’s presence and his dwelling among men under the old and under the new and definitive dispensation,” 262-99.
  • Corneanu, Nicolae, “The Jesus Prayer and Deification,” St. Vladimir’s Theological Quarterly 39 (1995): 3-24.
  • Daley, Brian E., S.J., The Hope of the Early Church. A Handbook of Patristic Eschatology (Cambridge University Press 1991).
  • Dalmais, Irenee-H., “Divinisation,” in Dictionnaire de Spiritualite (Paris 1957) 3: columns 1376-1389.
  • Dalmais, Irenee-H., “Mystere liturgique et divinisation dans la Mystagogie de saint Maxime le Confesseur,’ in Epektasis. Melanges patristiques offerts au Cardinal Jean Danielou (Paris 1972): 55-62.
  • Davies, Brian, The Thought of Thomas Aquinas (Oxford 1992). Chapter 13 entitled “How to be Holy,” 250-273.
  • Deseille, P., “L’eucharistie et la divinisation des chretiens selon les Peres de l’Eglise,” Le Messager orthodoxe 87 (1981): 40-56.
  • Drewery, Benjamin, “Deification,” in Christian Spirituality. Essays in Honor of Gordon Rupp, ed. Peter Brooks (London 1975): 35-62.
  • Edwards, Henry, “Justification, Sanctification, and the Eastern Concept of Theosis,” Consensus. A Canadian Lutheran Journal of Theology 14 (1988): 65-88.
  • Ermoni, V., “La deification de l’homme chez les Peres de l’Eglise,” Revue du clerge francais 11 (1897): 509-519.
  • Fairbairn, Don, “Salvation as Theosis. The Teaching of Eastern Orthodoxy,” Themelios 23 (1998): 42-54.
  • Faller, O., “Grieschischen Vergottung und christliche Vergottlichung,” Gregorianum 6 (1925): 405-35.
  • Ferguson, Everett, “God’s Infinity and Man’s Mutability. Perpetual Progress according to Gregory of Nyssa,” Greek Orthodox Theological Review 18 (1973): 59-78.
  • Ferguson, Everett, “Progress in Perfection. Gregory of Nyssa’s Vita Moysis,” Studia Patristica 14 (1976): 307-14.
  • Festugiere, A.-J., “Divinisation du Chretien,” La Vie Spirituelle 59 (1939): 90-99.
  • Finger, Thomas, “Anabaptism and Eastern Orthodoxy. Some Unexpected Similarities,” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 31 (1994): 67-91.
  • Finger, Thomas, “Post-Chalcedonian Christology. Some Reflections on Oriental Orthodox Christology from a Mennonite Perspective,” in Christ in East and West, ed. Paul Fries and Tiran Nersoyan (Mercer University Press 1987): 155-69.
  • Flew, Robert Newton, The Idea of Perfection in Christian Theology. An Historical Study of the Christian Ideal for the Present Life (Oxford 1968; 1st 1934).
  • Flogaus, R., Theosis bei Palamas und Luther (Gottingen 1997).
  • Flogaus, R., “Agreement on the Issues of Deification and Synergy?,” Luther Digest. An Annual Abridgement of Luther Studies 7 (1999): 99-105; English abridgement of “Einig in Sachen Theosis und Synergie?,” Kerygma und Dogma 42 (1996): 225-243.
  • Folliet, Georges, “’Deificari in otio,’ Augustin, Epistula 10.2,” Recherches Augustiniennes 2 (1962): 225-236.
  • Ford, David C., “Saint Makarios of Egypt and John Wesley. Variations on the Theme of Sanctification,” Greek Orthodox Theological Review 33 (1988): 288.
  • Fortino, Eleuterio F., “Sanctification and Deification,” Diakonia (Fordham University) 17 (1982): 192-200.
  • Franks, R.S., “The Idea of Salvation in the Theology of the Eastern Church,” in Mansfield College Essays. Presented to Rev. Andrew Martin Fairbairn (London 1909): 249-264.
  • Frary, Joseph, “Deification and Human Freedom,” Sobornost (London) 7 (1975): 117-126.
  • Gross, Jules, La divinisation du Chretien d’apres les peres Grecs (Paris 1938). Recently translated.
  • Gross, Jules, “Die Vergottlichung des Christen nach den grieschischen Vatern,” Zeitschrift fur Askese und Mystik 14 (1939): 79-94.
  • Hartin, Patrick J., “Call to be Perfect through Suffering (James 1.2-4). The Concept of Perfection in the Epistle of James and the Sermon on the Mount,” Biblica (Rome) 77 (1996): 477-492.
  • Hartnett, Joanne J., Doctrina S. Bonaventurae de deiformitate (Mundelein 1936).
  • Heine, Ronald E., Perfection in the Virtuous Life A Study in the Relationship between Edification and Polemical Theology in Gregory of Nyssa’s De Vita Moysis (Philadelphia 1975).
  • Heintjes, J., “De opgang van den manschelijken Geest tot God volgens sint Maximus Confessor,” Bijdragen van de Philosophische en Theologische Faculteiten der Nederlandsche Jezuieten 5 (1942): 260-302; 6 (1943): 64-123.
  • Hess, Hamilton, “The Place of Divinization in Athanasian Soteriology,” Studia Patristica 26 (1993): 369-374.
  • Hinlicky, Paul R., “Theological Anthropology. Toward integrating theosis and Justification by Faith,” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 34 (1997): 38-73.
  • Janssens, L., “Notre filiation divine d’apres S. Cyrille d’ Alexandrie,” Ephemerides Theologicae Lovaniensae 15 (1938): 233-78.
  • Jenson, Robert W., Triune Identity (Philadelphia 1982): 103-148.
  • Jenson, Robert W., “Theosis,” Dialog. A Journal of Theology (St. Paul, Minn.) 32 (1993): 108-112.
  • Kamppuri, Hannu T., editor, Dialogue between Neighbors. The Theological Conversations between the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Finland and the Russian Orthodox Church 1970-1986 (Helsinki 1986), passim.
  • Kamppuri, Hannu T., “Theosis in the Theology of Gregory Palamas,” in Luther und Theosis, ed. Simo Peura and Antti Raunio (Helsinki 1990); English abridgment in Luther Digest 3 (1995): 153-6.
  • Kantorowicz, Ernst H., “Deus per naturam, Deus per gratiam. A Note on Mediaeval Political Theology,” Harvard Theological Review 45 (1952): 253-77.
  • Khairallah, Philip A., “The Sanctification of Life,” Emmanuel 96 (1990): 323-333; 394-397; 403-406.
  • Kinghorn, Kenneth C., “Holiness: The Central Plan of God,” Evangelical Journal 15 (1997): 57-70.
  • Kolp, A. L., “Partakers of the Divine Nature. The Use of II Peter 1.4 by Athanasius,” Studia Patristica 17 (1979): 1018-1023.
  • Kretschmar, Georg, “The Reception of the Orthodox Teaching of Divinization in Protestant Theology,” in Luther und Theosis, ed. Simo Peura and Antti Raunio (Helsinki 1990): 61-80; English abridgment in Luther Digest 3 (1995): 156-9.
  • Ladner, Gerhard T., “St. Augustine’s Conception of the Reformation of Man to the Image of God,” Augustinus Magister 2 (Paris 1954): 867-888.
  • Ladner, Gerhart B., The Idea of Reform. Its impact on Christian Thought and Action in the Age of the Fathers (Harvard 1959).
  • Larchet, Jean-Claude, La Divinisation de l’homme selon Saint Maxime le Confesseur (Paris 1996).
  • Lattey, Cuthbert, “The Deification of man in Clement of Alexandria. Some further notes,” Journal of Theological Studies 17 (1916): 257-62.
  • Lawrenz, Melvin E., The Christology of John Chrysostom (Mellen Press 1996). Section entitled: “The Way of Salvation—Moral Accomplishment and Divinization:” 146-54.
  • Linforth, Ivan M., “’oi athanatizontes:’ (Herodotus 4.93-96),” Classical Philology 13 (1918): 23-33.
  • Lossky, Vladimir, “Redemption and Deification,” in In the Image and Likeness of God (London 1975; New York 1974; from the French of 1967): 97-110; article first published as “Redemption et deification,” in Messager de l’Exarchat du Patrarche russe en Europe occidental 15 (1953): 161-70.
  • Lot-Borodine, Myrrha, La Deification de l’homme selon la doctrine des Peres grecs (Paris 1970), edited and introduced by Jean Danielou. These three articles were first published as “La Doctrine de la Deification dans l’Eglise Grecque jusqu’au xie Siecle,” Revue d’Histoire des Religions 105 (1932): 5-43; 106 (1932): 525-74; 107 (1933): 8-55; “La Doctrine de la Grace et de la Liberte dans l’Orthodoxie Greco-orientale,” Oecumenica 6 (1939); “La Beatitude dans l’Orient Chretien,” Dieu Vivant 15 (1950).
  • Lot-Borodine, Myrrha, “La grace deifiante des sacraments d’apres Nicolas Cabasilas,” Revue des sciences Philosophiques et Theologiques 25 (1936): 299-330; 26 (1937): 693-717.
  • Maddox, Randy L., “John Wesley and Eastern Orthodoxy. Influences, convergences and Differences,” The Asbury Theological Journal (Wilmore, Kentucky) 45 (1990): 29-53.
  • Mahe, J., S.J., “La sanctification d’apres saint Cyrille d’Alexandrie,” Revue d’histoire ecclesiastique 10 (1909): 30-40; 469-492.
  • Mannermaa, Tuomo, “Theosis as a subject of Finnish Luther Research,” Pro Ecclesia 4 (1995): 37-48; first published in Luther und Theosis: Vergottlichung als Thema der abendlandischen Theologie, ed. Simo Peura and Antti Raunio (Helsinki 1990): 11-26; an English abridgment appeared in Luther Digest 3 (1995): 145-9.
  • Mantzaridis, Georgios, The Deification of Man. St. Gregory Palamas and the Orthodox Tradition, translated by Liadain Sherrard (New York 1984).
  • Marquart, Kurt E., “Luther and Theosis,” Concordia Theological Quarterly 64 (Fort Wayne, Indiana 2000): 182-205.
  • Marshall, Bruce D., “Ex Occidente Lux? Aquinas and Eastern Orthodox Theology,” Modern Theology 20.1 (January 2004): 23-50.
  • Marshall, Bruce D., “Justification as Declaration and Deification,” International Journal of Systematic Theology 4.1 (March 2002): 3-28.
  • Martikainen, Jouko, “Man’s Salvation. Deification or Justification?,” Sobornost 7 (London: 1976): 180-192.
  • Mayo, Harold, John Wesley and the Christian East: on the subject of Christian Perfection, Masters Thesis, St. Vladimir’s Orthodox Theological Seminary, New York 1980.
  • McCormick, K. Steve, “Theosis in Chrysostom and Wesley: an Eastern paradigm on faith and love,” Wesleyan Theological Journal 26 (1991): 38-103.
  • McCoy, J. D., “Philosophical influences on the doctrine of the Incarnation in Athanasius and Cyril of Alexandria,” Encounter 38 (Christian Theological Seminary, Indianapolis: 1977): 362-91.
  • McDaniel, Michael C.D., “Salvation as Justification and Theosis,” in Salvation in Christ: A Lutheran-Orthodox Dialogue, ed. John Meyendorff and Robert Tobias (Minneapolis 1992): 67-83; abridged in Luther Digest 3 (1995): 142-4.
  • McDonald, Peter, “To become Gods: a saintly teaching,” Faith Magazine 30 (1998): 13-17.
  • McDonnell, Kilian, The Baptism of Jesus in the Jordan. The Trinitarian and Cosmic Order of Salvation (Liturgical Press, Collegeville, Minn. 1996). Chapter 9: “Taking the Robe of Glory from the Jordan--Divinization”; Chapter 10: “The Cosmic Jordan and the Robe of Glory—Divinization and Eschatology,” 128-55; and passim.
  • McGuckin, John A., St. Cyril of Alexandria: The Christological Controversy. Its history, theology and texts (E.J. Brill 1994). Chapter Three: “The Christology of Cyril: 1. Redemptive Deification: Cyril’s presuppositions and major concerns”: 175-226.
  • Merritt, John G., “’Dialogue’ within a Tradition: John Wesley and Gregory of Nyssa discuss Christian Perfection,” Wesleyan Theological Journal 22 (1987): 92-116.
  • Messner, R., “Rechtfertigung und Vergottlichung—und die Kirche. Zur okumenischen Bedeutung neuerer Tendenzen in der Lutherforschung,” Zeitschrift fur katholische Theologie 118 (1996): 23-35.
  • Meyendorff, John, “Remarks on Eastern Patristic Thought in John Scottus Eriugena,” in Eriugena: East and West, edited by Bernard McGinn and Willemien Otten (University of Notre Dame 1994): 51-68.
  • Meyendorff, John, “Theosis in the Eastern Christian Tradition,” in Christian Spirituality III: Post Reformation and Modern, ed. Louis Dupre and Don Saliers (New York 1989): 470-6.
  • Moore, D. Marselle, “Development in Wesley’s thought on Sanctification and Perfection,” Wesleyan Theological Journal 20 (1985): 29-53.
  • Morse, Jonathan, “Fruits of the Eucharist: Henosis and Theosis,” Diakonia (Fordham University) 17 (1982): 127-42.
  • Mosser, Carl, “The Greatest possible blessing: Calvin and deification,” Scottish Journal of Theology 55.1 (2002): 36-57.
  • Musurillo, Herbert, From Glory to Glory: Texts from Gregory of Nyssa’s Mystical Writings, with Introduction by Jean Danielou (New York 1979).
  • Nellas, Panayiotis, Deification in Christ: Orthodox Perspectives on the Nature of the Human Person, translated by Norman Russell (New York 1987).
  • Newman, John Henry Cardinal, Select Treatises of St. Athanasius in Controversy with the Arians (1895; 1st 1841 ff.). Chapter on Deification.
  • Nispel, Mark D., “Christian Deification and the Early Testimonia,” Vigiliae Christianae 53 (1999): 289-304. Based on Master’s Thesis, University of Nebraska.
  • Nock, Arthur Darby, review article, in Journal of Religion 31 (1951): 214-6.
  • Norman, Keith E., Deification: The Content of Athanasian Soteriology, Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University 1980.
  • Norris, Frederick W., “Deification: Consensual and Cogent,” Scottish Journal of Theology 49 (1996): 411-428.
  • Oroz Reta, Jose, “De l’illumination a la deification de l’ame selon saint Augustin,” Studia Patristica 27 (1993): 364-82.
  • O’Collins, Gerald, S.J., Christology. A Biblical, Historical, and Systematic Study of Jesus (Oxford University Press 1995). Passim
  • O’Keefe, Mark, “Theosis and the Christian Life. Toward Integrating Roman Catholic Ethics and Spirituality,” Eglise et Theologie (Ottawa, Canada) 25 (1994): 47-63.
  • O’Shea, Kevin F., “Divinization: a Study in Theological Analogy,” The Thomist 29 (1965): 1-45.
  • Perkins, Harold William, The Doctrine of Christian or Evangelical Perfection (London 1927).
  • Peura, Simo, “Participation in Christ according to Luther,” in Luther und Theosis, ed. Simo Peura and Antti Raunio (Helsinki 1990); English abridgment in Luther Digest 3 (1995): 164-8.
  • Peura, Simo, “The Deification of Man as Being in God,” Luther Digest 5 (1997): 168-72; English abridgment of “Die Vergottlichung des Menschen als Sein in God,” Lutherjahrbuch 60 (1993): 39-71.
  • Phan, Peter C., Grace and the Human Condition (Michael Glazier 1988): 132-138; 171-176.
  • Piolanti, A., “La Grazia come participazione della Natura Divina,” Euntes Docete 10 (1957): 34-50.
  • Places, Eduard des, “Divinization,” Dictionnaire de Spiritualite 3 (Paris 1957): columns 1370-1375.
  • Plass, Paul, “Transcendent Time in Maximus the Confessor,” The Thomist 44 (1980): 259-77.
  • Plass, Paul, “’Moving Rest’ in Maximus the Confessor,” Classica et Mediaevalia 35 (1984): 177-90.
  • Popov, I.V., “Ideja obozenija v drevne-vostocnoi cerkvi” (‘The idea of divinization in the Ancient Eastern Church’), in Voprosi filosofij i psixogij 97 (1909): 165-213.
  • Posset, Franz, “’Deification’ in the German Spirituality of the Late Middle Ages and in Luther: An Ecumenical Historical Perspective,” Archiv fur Reformationsgeschichte 84 (1993): 103-25.
  • Preuss, K.F.A., Ad Maximi Confessoris de Deo hominisque deificatione doctrinam abnotationum pars I (Schneeberg 1894).
  • Rakestraw, Robert V., “Becoming like God: An Evangelical Doctrine of Theosis,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 40 (1997): 257-69.
  • Randenborg, G. van, Vergottung und Erlosung (Berlin).
  • Rechtfertigung und Verherrlichung (Theosis) des Menschen durch Jesus Christus (‘Justification and Glorification (Theosis) of the Human Person through Jesus Christ’) (Germany, 1995).
  • Ritschl, Dietrich, “Hippolytus’ Conception of Deification,” Scottish Journal of Theology 12 (1959): 388-99.
  • Rius-Camps, J., El dinamismo trinitario en la divinizacion de los seres racionales segun Origenes (Rome 1970).
  • Rondet, Henri, The Grace of Christ (Newman Press 1967; Paris 1948). Chapter Five: “The Greek Fathers: The Divinization of the Christian”: 65-88; and passim.
  • Rondet, Henri, S.J., “La divinization du Chretien,” Nouvelle Revue Theologique, 71 (1949): 449-476; 561-588; reprinted and expanded in Rondet, Essais sur la Theologie de la Grace (Paris 1964): 107-200.
  • Rufner, V., “Homo secundus Deus,” Philosophisches Jahrbuch 63 (1955): 248-91.
  • Rusch, William G., “How the Eastern Fathers understood what the Western Church meant by Justification,” Justification by Faith: Lutherans and Catholics in Dialogue VII, ed. H.G. Andersen, T. A. Murphy, J. A. Burgess (Augsburg Press 1985): 131-142, notes 347-8.
  • Russell, Norman, “’Partakers of the Divine Nature’ (II Peter 1.4) in the Byzantine Tradition,” in J. Hussey Festschrift (1998). off-site
  • Ryk, Marta, “The Holy Spirit’s Role in the Deification of Man according to Contemporary Orthodox Theology,” Diakonia (Fordham University) 10 (1975): 24-39; 109-130.
  • Saarinen, Risto, Faith and Holiness. Lutheran-Orthodox Dialogues 1959-1994 (Gottingen 1997).
  • Saarinen, Risto, “Salvation in the Lutheran-Orthodox Dialogue. A Comparative Perspective,” Pro Ecclesia 5 (1996): 202-213.
  • Saarinen, Risto, “The Presence of God in Luther’s Theology,” Lutheran Quarterly 8 (1994): 3-13.
  • Salvation in Christ. A Lutheran-Orthodox Dialogue, ed. John Meyendorff and Robert Tobias (Minneapolis 1992)
  • Sartorius, B., La doctrine de la deification de l’homme d’apres les Peres grecs en general et Gregoire Palamas en particulier, (Doctoral Thesis, Geneva 1965).
  • Schmitz-Perrin, Rudolf, “’Theosis hoc est deification’. Depassement et paradoxe de l’apophase chez Jean Scot Erigene,” Revue des sciences religieuses 72 (1998): 420-445.
  • Schonborn, Christoph, From Death to Life. The Christian Journey (Ignatius Press 1995; 1st German 1988). Chapter Two: “Is Man to become God? On the meaning of the Christian Doctrine of Deification”: 41-63, and passim.
  • Schonborn, Christoph, God’s Human Face: The Christ-Icon (Ignatius Press 1994; 1st French 1976, 1978; 2nd German 1984). Passim.
  • Schonborn, Christoph, “L’homme est-il fait pour devenir Dieu? Notes sur le sense chretien de la ‘deification’ or ‘divinisation’ de l’homme,’ Omnis Terra 22 (1983): 53-64.
  • Schonborn, Christoph, “Uber die richtige Fassung des dogmatischen Begriffs der Vergottlichung des Menschen,” Jahrbuch fur Philosophie und Spekulative Theologie (Freiburg) 34 (1987): 3-47.
  • Schurr, George M., “On the Logic of Ante-Nicene affirmations of the ‘Deification’ of the Christian,” Anglican Theological Review 51 (1969): 97-105.
  • Schwarzwaller, Klaus, “Verantwortung des Glaubens,” in Freiheit als Liebe bei Martin Luther, ed. Dennis Bielfeldt and Klaus Schwarzwaller (Frankfurt, 1995): 133-158.
  • Sheldon-Williams, I. P., review article of M. Lot-Borodine, La Deification de l’Homme, in Downside Review 89 (1971): 90-93.
  • Slenczka, Reinhard, “Communion with God as Foundation and object of theology--deification as an ontological problem,” Luther und Theosis, ed. Simo Peura and Antti Raunio (Helsinki 1990); English abridgment in Luther Digest 3 (1995): 149-53.
  • Snyder, Howard A., ”John Wesley and Macarius the Egyptian,” The Asbury Theological Journal (Wilmore, Kentucky) 45 (1990): 55-60.
  • Staniloae, Dumitru, “Image, Likeness, and Deification in the Human Person,” Communio 13 (1986): 64-83.
  • Steely, John E., Gnosis: The Doctrine of Christian Perfection in the Writings of Clement of Alexandria (Th. D. Dissertation, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, Kentucky 1954).
  • Stephen E. Robinson, "The Doctrine of Deification," in Stephen E. Robinson, Are Mormons Christians? (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, 1993),60–65. off-site FAIR link
  • Stolz, Anselm, The Doctrine of Spiritual Perfection (St. Louis 1946; 1st German).
  • Stoop, Jan A. A., Die Deification Hominis in Die Sermones en Epistolae van Augustinus (Leiden 1952).
  • Strange, C. Roderick, “Athanasius on Divinization,” Studia Patristica 16 (1985): 342-346.
  • Stuckwisch, Richard, “Justification and Deification in the Dialogue between the Tubingen Theologians and Patriarch Jeremias II,” Logia. A Journal of Lutheran Theology 9 (2000): 17-28. off-site
  • Telepneff, Gregory, and James Thornton, “Arian Transcendence and the Notion of Theosis in Saint Athanasios,” Greek Orthodox Theological Review 32 (1987): 271-77.
  • Theodorou, A., “Die Lehre von der Vergottung des Menschen bei den grieschischen Kirchenvater,” Kerygma und Dogma (Zeitschrift fur theologische Forschung und Kirchliche lehre) 7 (1961): 283-310.
  • Thunberg, Lars, Microcosm and Mediator: The Theological Anthropology of Maximus the Confessor (Open Court 1995; 1st Sweden 1965): especially 427-32.
  • Thuren, Jukka, “Justification and participation in the Divine Nature,” Teologinen Aikakauskirja (Theological Journal of Finland: 1977): 483-99.
  • Tsirpanlis, Constantine N., Greek Patristic Theology, Volume I: Basic Doctrine in Eastern Church Fathers (New York 1979); Chapter entitled: “Aspects of Athanasian Soteriology”: 25-40.
  • Turcescu, Lucian, “Soteriological Issues in the 1999 Lutheran-Catholic Joint Declaration on Justification: an Orthodox Perspective,” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 38.1 (2001): 64-72.
  • Turner, H.E.W., The Patristic Doctrine of Redemption. A Study of the Development of Doctrine during the First Five Centuries (London 1952).
  • Union with Christ. The new Finnish Interpretation of Luther, ed. Carl E. Braaten and Robert W. Jenson (Eerdmans 1998). Several papers, by Mannermaa, Peura, Raunio, Juntunen, Jenson, Braaten, Bielfeldt, all dealing with Theosis.
  • Vandervelde, George, “Justification and Deification—Problematic Synthesis: A Response to Lucian Turcescu”, Journal of Ecumenical Studies 38.1 (2001): 73-78.
  • Volz, Carl A., Faith and Practice in the Early Church. Foundations for Contemporary Theology (Minneapolis 1983). Volz has a section entitled “Christ, the Giver of Deification”: 76-9.
  • Wakefield, Gordon S., “Perfection,” in The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Spirituality, ed. Gordon S. Wakefield (Philadelphia 1983): 297-9.
  • Walland, F., La grazia divinizzante (Asti 1949).
  • Watson, Nicholas, “Melting into God the English Way: Deification in the Middle English Version of Marguerite Porete’s Mirouer des simples ames anienties,” in Prophets Abroad. The Reception of Continental Holy Women in late Medieval England, ed. Rosalynn Voader (Cambridge 1996): 19-49.
  • Wesche, Kenneth Paul, “Eastern Orthodox Spirituality: Union with God in Theosis,” Theology Today (Princeton, NJ) 56 (1999): 29-43.
  • Wesche, Kenneth Paul, “The Union of God and man in Jesus Christ in the Thought of Gregory of Nazianzus,” St. Vladimir’s Theological Quarterly 28 (1982): 83-98.
  • Weser, H., S. Maximi Confessoris praecepta de incarnatione Dei et deificatione hominis exponuntur et examinantur (Dissertation, Berlin 1869).
  • Wild, P. T., Divinization of Man according to St. Hilary of Poitiers (Mundelein 1950).
  • Williams, A.N., “Deification in the Summa Theologiae. A Structural Interpretation of the Prima Pars,” The Thomist 61 (1997): 219-255.
  • Williams, A.N., “Light from Byzantium: The Significance of Palamas’ Doctrine of Theosis,” Pro Ecclesia 3 (1994): 483-496.
  • Williams, Anna Ngaire, The Ground of Union. Deification in Aquinas and Palamas (Oxford University Press 1999).
  • Williams, Rowan, “Deification,” in The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Spirituality, ed. Gordon S. Wakefield (Philadelphia 1983): 106-8.
  • Wilson-Kastner, Patricia, “A Note on the Iconoclastic Controversy: Greek and Latin disagreements about Matter and Deification,” Andrews University Seminary Studies 18 (1980): 139-48.
  • Wilson-Kastner, Patricia, “Grace as participation in the Divine Life in the Theology of Augustine of Hippo,” Augustinian Studies 7 (1976): 135-52.
  • Winslow, Donald F., Dynamics of Salvation: A Study of Gregory of Nazianzus (1979); Passim.
  • Wolters, Al, “’Partners of the Deity:’ A Covenantal Reading of II Peter 1.4,” Calvin Theological Journal 25 (1990): 28-44; with postscript 26 (1991): 418-420
  • Zwanepol, Klaas, “Luther en Theosis,” Luther-Bulletin. Tijdschrift voor interconfessioneel Lutheronderzoek 2 (1993): 48-73; English abridgment in Luther Digest 5 (1995): 177-81.

From: GW
Received: Tuesday, 27 March 2007

I am a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) and am so grateful to belong to a church that does not tear down other churches. "By their fruits ye shall know them."

From: DP
Received: Tuesday, 27 March 2007

What a great site. Thank you so much for this much needed site! I have enjoyed your readings and look forward to supporting your cause.

From: N Received: Tuesday, 27 March 2007

Hi, Thanks for your well written commentary and explanations concerning the new anti-Joseph Smith DVD. I think the manner in which the claims were dealt with was very good and for the most part in the right spirit.

The only critique I have is that a few times I felt FAIR'S responses were a little too cheeky in making the DVD producers look like fools, or rather, it felt like I was reading a retaliation that if it was done in person to the producers, it would have provoked contention and bitter feelings. When I read things like this I try to imagine one of the 12 apostles giving the explanation and the spirit he would do it in. I think the information is accurate and for the most part well done, there were only a few times I was thinking the responses were a little cheekier than what maybe the ideal spirit would have been.

The only reason I say this is that I believe that in order for your efforts in countering the damage from DVD to be most effective, the Spirit ideally must be able to be present from the words you are writing about the DVD's errors. Truth said in the wrong way can lead to absence of the Spirit and thus not leaving an impression from its witness about the truth of what you are saying to defend the gospel. I think the ideal overtone should be that of humility, yet boldness when need be. But we are not perfect after all, and I know that I often respond in ways in my communication that are less than ideal.

I think that what you guys are doing is a great thing for Christ's church and know that your efforts will have a tremendous meaningful impact in His cause for truth. Thanks for your efforts.

We wrote the response pages very quickly, so appreciate any feedback on tone and style. If there are specific examples where you believe we were uncharitable, please bring them to our attention using the contact web page and we will do our best to improve them.

From: R
Received: Tuesday, 27 March 2007

Great job with the website! It is refreshing to see someone on the internet with a correct perspective of the Gospel to defend the truth. Keep up the great work! I support you fully.

From: S Received: Wednesday, 28 March 2007

I have posted your website on many blogs I have encountered regarding the Joseph Smith DVD. I am so thankful that you responded so quickly and answered everything that was addressed. I am a convert to the church (baptized 2 years ago) and although I do not have a whole lot of knowledge (yet) I do have a incredibly strong testimony. I just want to thank you for all your hard work, you were able to answer all the questions that I could not!!! Ya'll are soooooooo awesome, thank you for all that you do!!

From: SJ
Received: Wednesday, 28 March 2007

I'm glad you posted the web page discussing the true nature of this DVD. My question is more of a logistical one. I'm wondering how they got our residential addresses. It is too broad of a distribution for them to have collected ward rosters. Any ideas?

We are not aware of how those who are distributing the film are identifying LDS households. It's possible that they have access to membership records, but it seems more likely that they're just hitting every home in areas with concentrated LDS populations.

From: CD
Received: Wednesday, 28 March 2007

I have been a life long Mormon, marrying in the temple and have been devoted to building up the kingdom, or so I thought. I have recently been experiencing many inconsistencies within my ward, with ward leaders and personal life regarding Mormon doctrine; so I set out to find answers to honest questions that were being avoided by my local church leadership. After many difficult months of research and fact finding, I have come to the painful conclusion that the Mormon church although a very good organization, is not what it claims to be. I am shocked that our leaders, including the prophet himself, have lied and buried the truth from its members regarding the history of Mormonism. I find it appalling that they continue to profess actual documented historical facts as anti-Mormon literature. (Many of these facts coming from Mormons themselves, Mormon historians, BYU professors etc. and are threatened and harassed by church leaders when they question doctrine.) We are told as Mormons not to read anything that is not published by the church, to bury our heads in the sand and only believe what we are told. No wonder, they are terrified that people will find out the truth about Joseph Smith and Mormonism. You tout that this DVD is so anti-Mormon while some claims might be false, most of it is true. If the Mormons weren't so ignorant as to believe everything they are told they would learn quite a history lesson.

Latter-day Saints are not afraid of our own history, nor are we told "not to read anything that is not published by the church, to bury our heads in the sand and only believe what we are told."

From: MP
Received: Wednesday, 28 March 2007

I just wanted to thank all who are responsible for updating this website. Great resource.

From: GSW
Received: Wednesday, 28 March 2007

For someone who is looking for clarifications in a world of bias barrage, I thank you for your efforts. I really appreciate another fantastic resource for personal reflection and contemplation. Please know this is a valuable thing for many people!

From: BT
Received: Wednesday, 28 March 2007

I just wanted to let you know that I think what you are doing by defending the true beliefs of the LDS faith is a very inspired and admirable thing. I pray that those whom are deceived by the half-truths and lies found in this new DVD will find your site and be enlightened by the whole truth. God bless!

From: MS
Received: Wednesday, 28 March 2007

I've been in my hotel room all evening watching the latest anti-DVD and internally, spiritually and intellectually responding. FAIR did a tremendous job in its effort to clear the waters. The DVD will do more good than harm. I just wanted to say thanks to all of those involved!

From: CL
Received: Wednesday, 28 March 2007

I live in a small community in Eastern Utah and have not seen the video currently being distributed. However, after hearing the story on KSL 10:00 evening news I was curious and went to their website to learn more on this story. I can only say THANK YOU to all the volunteers who have done an excellent job in researching and responding to the distortions apparent in this video.

Jump to...

Special Features

Other Materials

Other Protestant attacks on the Church of Jesus Christ:

Do You Have Questions?
If you have questions about anything you read on this page, we encourage you to ask. FairMormon is a volunteer organization, and our members are glad to answer questions. You can ask by using our handy contact page. You will get one or more answers, via e-mail, usually within a short time after asking.

Click here to receive our free monthly e-mail newsletter for defenders of the restored Gospel of Jesus Christ. You can unsubscribe at any time.