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Las cuestiones raciales y el Mormonismo/Los negros y el sacerdocio/Ideas repudiadas/Neutral en la "guerra en el cielo"
El mormonismo y el concepto de que algunos eran "neutrales" en la "guerra en el cielo"
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- Temas del Evangelio: "Actualmente, la Iglesia rechaza las teorías formuladas en el pasado de que la piel negra es una señal de desaprobación o maldición divina, o que refleja las acciones en la vida preterrenal"
- Joseph Fielding Smith: "No conocemos ninguna escritura, antigua o moderna, que declare que, en el momento de la rebelión en el cielo, un tercio de las huestes del cielo permanecieron neutrales"
- Pregunta: ¿La idea de que los negros eran neutrales en la "guerra en el cielo" fue alguna vez la doctrina oficial?
- Pregunta: ¿Los líderes de la Iglesia enseñaron alguna vez que los negros eran neutrales en la "guerra en el cielo"?
- Pregunta: ¿Repudió la Iglesia la idea de neutralidad en la "guerra en el cielo"?
Temas del Evangelio: "Actualmente, la Iglesia rechaza las teorías formuladas en el pasado de que la piel negra es una señal de desaprobación o maldición divina, o que refleja las acciones en la vida preterrenal"
"La raza y el sacerdocio," Temas del Evangelio en LDS.org:
Actualmente, la Iglesia rechaza las teorías formuladas en el pasado de que la piel negra es una señal de desaprobación o maldición divina, o que refleja las acciones en la vida preterrenal; que los matrimonios de raza mixta son un pecado; y que las personas negras o de otra raza u origen son en modo alguno inferiores a cualquier otra persona. Hoy en día, los líderes de la Iglesia condenan en forma inequívoca todo racismo, pasado y presente, de cualquier manera que se manifieste23.
Desde ese día en 1978, la Iglesia ha mirado hacia el futuro al continuar aumentando rápidamente el número de miembros entre los africanos, los afroamericanos y otras personas de ascendencia africana. Aunque las cédulas de miembros de la Iglesia no indican la raza ni el grupo étnico de la persona, la cantidad de miembros de la Iglesia de ascendencia africana se eleva ahora a cientos de miles.
La Iglesia proclama que la redención por medio de Jesucristo está a disposición de toda la familia humana con las condiciones que Dios ha prescrito. Afirma que Dios no “hace acepción de personas” y declara enfáticamente que cualquier persona que sea justa, sea cual sea su raza, es favorecida por Él. Las enseñanzas de la Iglesia con respecto a los hijos de Dios se resumen en un versículo del segundo libro de Nefi: “…y a nadie de los que a él vienen desecha, sean negros o blancos, esclavos o libres, varones o mujeres… y todos son iguales ante Dios, tanto los judíos como los gentiles”.Plantilla:Read more
Joseph Fielding Smith: "No conocemos ninguna escritura, antigua o moderna, que declare que, en el momento de la rebelión en el cielo, un tercio de las huestes del cielo permanecieron neutrales"
We know of no scripture, ancient or modern, that declares that at the time of the rebellion in heaven that one-third of the hosts of heaven remained neutral. ... That one-third of the hosts of heaven remained neutral and therefore were cursed by having a black skin, could hardly be true, for the negro race has not constituted one-third of the inhabitants of the earth. Plantilla:Read more 
Pregunta: ¿La idea de que los negros eran neutrales en la "guerra en el cielo" fue alguna vez la doctrina oficial?
The "neutral in the war in heaven" argument was never doctrine. In fact, some Church leaders, starting with Brigham Young, explicitly repudiated the idea
This idea was repudiated well before the priesthood ban was rescinded. President Brigham Young rejected it in an account recorded by Wilford Woodruff in 1869:
Lorenzo Young asked if the Spirits of Negroes were Nutral in Heaven. He said someone said Joseph Smith said they were. President Young said No they were not. There was No Nutral spirits in Heaven at the time of the Rebelion. All took sides. He said if any one said that He Herd the Prophet Joseph Say that the spirits of the Blacks were Nutral in Heaven He would not Believe them for He herd Joseph Say to the Contrary. All spirits are pure that Come from the presence of God. The posterity of Cane are Black Because He Commit Murder. He killed Abel & God set a Mark upon his posterity But the spirits are pure that Enter their tabernacles & there will be a Chance for the redemption of all the Children of Adam Except the Sons of perdition. 
The First Presidency under Joseph F. Smith also rejected this idea
there is no revelation, ancient or modern, neither is there any authoritative statement by any of the authorities of the Church … [in support of the idea] that the negroes are those who were neutral in heaven at the time of the great conflict or war, which resulted in the casting out of Lucifer and those who were led by him. 
Joseph Smith never taught the idea that those born with black skin were "neutral" during the war in heaven
Brigham Young, when asked this question, repudiated the idea. Wilford Woodruff recorded the following in his journal:
December 25, 1869: I attended the School of the Prophets. Many questions were asked. President Young answered them. Lorenzo Young asked if the spirits of Negroes were neutral in heaven. He said someone said Joseph Smith said they were. President Young said no they were not. There were no neutral spirits in heaven at the time of the rebellion. All took sides. He said if anyone said that he heard the Prophet Joseph say that the spirits of the Blacks were neutral in heaven, he would not believe them, for he heard Joseph say to the contrary. All spirits are pure that come from the presence of God. The posterity of Cain are black because he commit[ted] murder. He killed Abel and God set a mark upon his posterity. But the spirits are pure that enter their tabernacles and there will be a chance for the redemption of all the children of Adam except the sons of perdition. 
The idea that anyone who came to earth was "neutral" in the premortal existence is not a doctrine of the Church. Early Church leaders had a variety of opinions regarding the status of blacks in the pre-existence, and some of these were expressed in an attempt to explain the priesthood ban. The scriptures, however, do not explicitly state that the status or family into which we were born on earth had anything to do with our "degree of valiance" in our pre-mortal life.
Other religions would not have had reason for such a teaching because they do not believe in the pre-existence or the "war in heaven."
The scriptures themselves do not state that anyone was neutral in the pre-existence.
Pregunta: ¿Los líderes de la Iglesia enseñaron alguna vez que los negros eran neutrales en la "guerra en el cielo"?
Yes, some Church leaders promoted the idea as a way to explain the priesthood ban
Despite the explicit denial of this concept by Brigham Young, the idea that people born with black skin as a result of their behavior in the pre-existence was used by several 20th century Church leaders in order to try and provide an explanation for the priesthood ban.
The First Presidency, in a statement issued on August 17, 1949, actually attributed the ban to "conduct of spirits in the premortal existence"
The First Presidency stated in 1949:
The position of the Church regarding the Negro may be understood when another doctrine of the Church is kept in mind, namely, that the conduct of spirits in the premortal existence has some determining effect upon the conditions and circumstances under which these spirits take on mortality. 
Joseph Fielding Smith said in 1954 that there were no "neutrals in the war in heaven," but that rewards in this life may have "reflected actions taken in the pre-existence
In the 1954 book Doctrines of Salvation (compiled by Bruce R. McConkie), Joseph Fielding Smith stated that "there were no neutrals in the war in heaven," but suggested that the rewards received in this life reflected actions taken in the pre-existence:
NO NEUTRALS IN HEAVEN. There were no neutrals in the war in heaven. All took sides either with Christ or with Satan. Every man had his agency there, and men receive rewards here based upon their actions there, just as they will receive rewards hereafter for deeds done in the body. The Negro, evidently, is receiving the reward he merits. 
Bruce R. McConkie said in 1966 that they were "less valiant" in the pre-existence
The most well known of these was the statement made by Bruce R. McConkie in his book Mormon Doctrine. McConkie offered the following opinion:
Those who were less valiant in the pre-existence and who thereby had certain spiritual restrictions imposed upon them during mortality are known to us as the negroes. Such spirits are sent to earth through the lineage of Cain, the mark put upon him for his rebellion against God and his murder of Abel being a black skin...but this inequality is not of man’s origin. It is the Lord’s doing, based on His eternal laws of justice, and grows out of the lack of spiritual valiance of those concerned in their first estate. 
These statements by Church leaders reflected ideas which were prevalent in society during the 1950s and 1960s
These statements by 20th century leaders did not represent thinking that was unique to the Church, but instead reflected ideas which were much more prevalent in society during the 1950's and 1960's.
When the priesthood ban was lifted in 1978, McConkie retracted what he had said previously
Elder McConkie retracted his previous statements regarding the priesthood ban when it was lifted in 1978:
Forget everything I have said, or what...Brigham Young...or whomsoever has said...that is contrary to the present revelation. We spoke with a limited understanding and without the light and knowledge that now has come into the world. 
Pregunta: ¿Repudió la Iglesia la idea de neutralidad en la "guerra en el cielo"?
President Kimball was reported as repudiating this idea following the 1978 revelation
Some members and leaders explained the ban as congruent with the justice of God by suggesting that those who were denied the priesthood had done something in the pre-mortal life to deny themselves the priesthood. President Kimball was reported as repudiating this idea following the 1978 revelation:
President Kimball "flatly [stated] that Mormonism no longer holds to...a theory" that Blacks had been denied the priesthood "because they somehow failed God during their pre-existence." 
The modern Church rejects this theory
Today, the Church disavows the theories advanced in the past that black skin is a sign of divine disfavor or curse, or that it reflects actions in a premortal life; that mixed-race marriages are a sin; or that blacks or people of any other race or ethnicity are inferior in any way to anyone else. Church leaders today unequivocally condemn all racism, past and present, in any form. 
Modern Church leaders teach that everyone who came to earth in this day was "valiant" in the premortal existence
Elder M. Russell Ballard, talking of today's youth, said in 2005:
Remind them that they are here at this particular time in the history of the world, with the fulness of the gospel at their fingertips, because they made valiant choices in the premortal existence. 
- "La raza y el sacerdocio," Temas del Evangelio en LDS.org (2013)
- Joseph Fielding Smith, "The Negro and the Priesthood," Improvement Era Vol 27, Num 6, pg 565 (April 1924)
- Wilford Woodruff, Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 9 vols., ed., Scott G. Kenny (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1985), 6:511 (journal entry dated 25 December 1869). ISBN 0941214133.
- First Presidency letter from Joseph F. Smith, Anthon H. Lund, and Charles W. Penrose, to M. Knudson, 13 Jan. 1912.
- Wilford Woodruff's Journal, entry dated Dec. 25, 1869.
- First Presidency Statement (George Albert Smith), August 17, 1949. off-site (Inglés)
- Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1954) , 1:65-66. Plantilla:Eo
- Bruce R. McConkie, Mormon Doctrine (1966), p. 527.
- Bruce R. McConkie, "New Revelation on Priesthood," Priesthood (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1981), 126-137.
- Kimball, Lengthen Your Stride, chapter 24, page 3; citing Richard Ostling, "Mormonism Enters a New Era," Time (7 August 1978): 55. Ostling told President Kimball's biographer and son that this was a paraphrase, but an accurate reporting of what he had been told (see footnote 13, citing interview on 10 May 2001).
- "Race and the Priesthood," Gospel Topics, lds.org. (2013) off-site (Inglés)
- M. Russell Ballard, "One More," Ensign, May 2005, p. 69.